Submitted by Hector Diaz

The above flag was flown at most of the military posts in Spain's American colonies in the eighteenth century. The design is Burgundian inspired symbolism described as the 'red raguly saltire of Saint Andrew' [St. Andrew's Cross] on a white background. Red and white are dynastic colors of the Bourbons. Burgundian symbolism was introduced with Charles [Carlos] I of Spain [Charles V of the Hapsburgs and an elected 'Holy Roman Emperor'], whose father was Philip I, duke of Burgundy and grandfather was Maximilian of the Austrian Hapsburg House.
Concise Bibliography.
Recommended Web Links.


THE BATTLE OF PENSACOLA Spain's Final Triumph Over Great Britain in the Gulf of Mexico, N. Orwin Rush, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, 1966. Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number: 66-64092

BERNARDO DE GALVEZ IN LOUISIANA 1776-1783, John Walton Caughey, University of California Press, Berkley, California, 1934.

BERNARDO DE GALVEZ'S SIEGE OF PENSACOLA IN 1781 (AS RELATED IN ROBERT FARMAR'S JOURNAL), Edited by James A. Padgett. The Louisiana Historical Quarterly, Vol 26, No. 2. April 1943.

THE CAMPAIGN THAT WON AMERICA The Story of Yorktown, Burke Davis, Eastern Acorn Press, 1970. Library of Congress Catalogue Number: 76-103429

THE FINAL CAMPAIGN OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION The Rise and Fall of the Spanish Bahamas, James A. Lewis, University of South Carolina Press, 1991. ISBN 0-87249-726-7 "

FRANCISCO BOULIGNY A Bourbon Soldier in Spanish Louisiana, Gilbert C. Din, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge and London, 1993. ISBN 0-8071-1795-1

"Gálvez- An Unsung Patriot" Thomas E. Van Hyning, The Sons of the American Revolution Magazine, Fall 1996.

HISPANIC PRESENCE IN THE UNITED STATES Frank de Varona, Editor, Mnemosyne Publishing Company , Miami, Florida, 1993. ISBN 1-56675-029-6

HONOR AND FIDELITY: The Louisiana Infantry Regiment and the Louisiana Militia Companies, 1766-1821, Jack D.L. Holmes, The Louisiana Collection of Books and Documents on Colonial Louisiana, Birmingham, Alabama, 1965.

LOUISIANA PATRIOTS 1776-1783, National Society Daughters of the American Revolution, 1776 D Street N.W. Washington D.C. 20006-5392, 1994.

THE JOURNAL OF DON FRANCISCO DE SAAVEDRA DE SANGRONIS 1780-1783, Edited and Introduced by Francisco Morales Padrón, Translated by Aileen Moore Topping, University of Florida Press, Gainsville, 1989. ISBN 0-8130--0877-8

"Leading a Raid Against Loyalists, James Willing Only Succeded in Turning the Local Populace Against His Cause," J. Barron Starr, Military History Magazine, February 1995.

THE LOG OF THE H.M.S. MENTOR 1780-1781 A New Account of the British navy at Pensacola, James A. Servis, Editor, University of West Florida, Pensacola, 1982. ISBN 0-8130-0704-6

MARYLAND LOYALISTS In The American Revolution, M. Christopher New, Tidewater Publishers, Centreville, Maryland 21617, 1996. ISBN 0-87033-495-6

THE SIEGE OF MOBILE 1780 IN MAPS, William S. Coker and Hazel P. Coker, Vol IX Spanish Borderland Series, The Perdido Bay Press, Pensacola, 1982. ISBN 0-933776-11-X

THE SIEGE OF PENSACOLA, 1781, in MAPS, William S. Coker and Hazel P. Coker, Vol VIII Spanish Borderland Series, The Perdido Bay Press, Pensacola 1981. ISBN 0-933776-07-1

SIEGE Spain and Britain: Battle of Pensacola March 9 May 8, 1781, Virginia Parks, Editor, Pensacola Historical Society, 1981. ISSN 0275-3669 ISBN 0-99566-00-1

SPANISH OBSERVERS AND THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1775-1783, Light Townsend Cummins, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge and London, 1991.ISBN 0-8071-1690-4

SPAIN AND THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE UNITED STATES An Intrinsic Gift, Thomas E. Chávez, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 2002. ISBN 0-8263-2793-1

SPAIN FORGOTTEN ALLY OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, Buchanan Parker Thompson, The Christopher Publishing House, North Quincy, Massachusetts, 1976. ISBN 0-8158-0341-9

"Spain's Report on the War With the British in Louisiana," Jac Nachbin, Louisiana Historical Quarterly, Vol XV, # 3. P 468-481, 1932.

"Spanish Governor Bernardo De Gálvez Salvaged the Gulf Coast for the Future United States," Hubert L. Koker, Military History Magazine, June 1993.

THE SPANISH IN NEW ORLEANS AND LOUISIANA, José Montero de Pedro, Marqués da Casa Mena, Richard E. Chandler, Translator, Pelican Publishing Company, Gretna, 2000. ISBN 1-56554-685-7

"The Spanish Louisiana Regiment, 1769-1803", René Chartrand, Military Illustrated Magazine, April-May 1988.

SPANISH MILITARY WEAPONS IN COLONIAL AMERICA 1700-1821 Sidney B. Brinckerhoff, Pierce Chamberlain, Stackpole Books, Cameron and Kelker Streets, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17105. ISBN 0-8117-1584-1

THE TEXAS CONNECTION With the American Revolution, Robert H. Thonhoff, Eakin Press, Austin, Texas, 2000. ISBN 1-57-168-418-2

TRAFALGAR and the Spanish Navy, John D. Harbron, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland 21042, 1988. ISBN 0-87021-695-3

WHEN THE FRENCH WERE HERE A Narrative of The Yorktown Campaign, Stephen Bonsal, Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc. Garden City, New York, 1945.

YO SOLO The Battle Journal of Bernardo de Gálvez During the American Revolution, E.A. Montemayor, Translator, Polyanthos Press, New Orleans, 1978. Library of Congress Catalogue Card No. 77-090109

"I ALONE Bernardo de Galvez and the taking of Pensacola 1781, A Spanish Contribution to the Independence of the United States," Carmen de Reparaz, Walter Rubin Translator, Ediciones de Cultura Hispanica ICI, Madrid, Spain, 1993. ISBN 64-7232-657-8


"LA CAMPAÑA DE PENSACOLA, 1781", Manuel Petinal, Editorial Almena, Madrid, 2002

"ESPAÑA Y LA INDEPENDENCIA DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS", Eric Beerman, Editorial Arguval, Málaga, España, 1992.

"ESPAÑA Y LA INDEPENDENCIA DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS DE NORTEAMERICA", Manuel Ballesteros Gaibrois, Instituto Puertorriqueño de Cultura Hispánica, Gráficas Yagües, Madrid, 1956.

"EL GRÁN ATAQUE A GIBRALTAR DE 1782 (Análisis militar, político y diplomático)" José L. Terrón Ponce, Ministerio de Defensa, Madrid, 2000. ISBN 84-7823-738-0

"1781 Registro de la Primera Empresa por la Libertad, En Pensacola", Francisco de Miranda, Revista America Espera, Caracas, Venezuela, Biblioteca Ayacucho, 1982.

YO SOLO Bernardo de Gálvez y la Toma de Panzacola en 1781, Carmen de Reparaz, Ediciones Serbal S.A/ICI ., Guitard, 45-08014 Barcelona, España, 1986. ISBN 84-7628-012-2 Serbal ISBN 84-7232-391-9 ICI


"Bernardo De GÁLVEZ Hero of the American Revolution", Lorenzo G. LaFarelle, Eakin Press, Austin Texas, 1992. ISBN 0-89015-849-5

HISPANICS IN AMERICAS DEFENSE, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Defense for Military Manpower, 1989

"Spain and the American Revolution", Cobblestone American History Magazine Volume 21, Number 8, Cobblestone Publishing Company, 30 Grove Street, Suite C, Peterborough, New Hampshire, November 2000.

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An excellent article, 'Washnigton's Second Front', by Ralph N. Cramer, Sr., Centennial President of the Florida Society, Sons of the American Revolution, can be found at:
It is an overview of Governor Bernardo de Galvez' campaigns in 1779 and 1780, as well as a brief description of the Irish-American merchant Oliver Polluck who was 'the link' between Galvez and direct materiel support delivered both to Washington's army and the American frontier forces under George Rogers Clark.

Visiting the US Army's Center of Military History (CMH) website to view a painting of the Spanish charging in the siege of Pensacola. One can view the image at:

The painting is the first one in the set shown at this specific URL, which is one of a series of sets the U.S Army publishes on American Soldiers. When the viewer clicks on the image (the first one of the set), the image reappears with corresponding text. Clicking again on the image will display a full screen (jpg image format) of the painting. The last battle waged by the Spanish in what today is the United States was in Arkansas, it was to put down a rebellion. Here is a site that explains what happened.

The Battle of St. Louis was of relative importance to the Revolution. Here is an account of what took place during it.

Robert Farmar was a British officer who participated in the Battle of Pensacola in 1781. Here is a diary he authored during the siege.

The Spanish Louisiana Infantry Regiment is featured in this article by the military historians who publish the "El Dorado" military series

A U.S. Army bibliography on the Spanish participation in the Revolution can be found here

This article is in Spanish and it deals with what has become of the flags which Galvez captured as a result of his triumph in Pensacola.

This article explains how the Jews who established themselves in tiny St. Eustitius were major suppliers of the revolutionaries, and what happened to them after Rodney captured the island.

Here is a copy of the resolution which Hector Diaz presented to the State of Maryland and which was adopted as Senate Joint 2, on April 8, 1997. It is in a website designed by Cajun descendants. The date it quotes May 1996 is when Hector Diaz first introduced it in the committees which were going to study and recommend it.

Another general article on the Spanish participation.

This web site contains several articles dealing with the subject.

The above is the personal arms of Carlos III. Some websites on Spanish Heraldry:

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Return to American Revolution Round Table Programs' webpage.

Page posted 11 February 2004; revised 9 October 2006.